Three Financial Statements: Explained
Author: Sarthak Bhalerao
Knowing how to work with the numbers in a company’s financial statements is an essential skill for analysts as well as investors. The interpretation and analysis of the balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements are the basis for smart investment choices. Let us look at what these financial statements are and their importance.
Table of Content
- What are Financial Statements?
- Importance of Financial Statements
- Three types of Financial Statements
What are financial statements?
Financial statements are the records of all the financial activities and positions of a business, company, or other entity. They convey the financial performance of the company. Financial statements are usually audited by agencies, accountants, auditors, etc to ensure the authenticity and accuracy of the financial statements. A company’s annual report consists of all the financial statements that are required to assess the performance of the company. 
Importance of financial statements
Financial analysts and investors use the financial data from these financial statements to analyze the performance of a certain company and also to make predictions about its future performance and growth. apart from this there also used to evaluate the company’s financial health and earning potential. Financial statements are important because they provide a huge amount of information about the company’s revenue, expenses, profitability, debt, and ability to meet short-term and long-term obligations . Some other advantages of financial statements are listed below :
- To determine the ability of a business to generate cash
- To derive financial ratios from the statements
- To track and review the inventory of a company and see whether the goods are in demand, fast-moving, or slow-moving.
Three types of Financial Statements
The three types of financial statements are:
- Income Statement
An income statement of a company is a financial record that shows you the company’s incomes and expenditures for a certain period (quarterly or yearly). The income statement is also referred to as the P&L statement, statement of operations, profit and loss statement, and statement of earnings. The income statement reports information on the revenue of the company, the expenses incurred to generate the revenues, tax and depreciation, and the earnings per share number. To have a better understanding let’s look at the income statement of Amaraja Batteries .
As you can see that the total income is ₹7,237.04 Cr. The expenses include the cost of materials, purchase of stock in trade, change in inventories, employee benefits, finance costs, depreciation and amortization, expense, and other expenses. The total expense comes to ₹6363.71 Cr. The tax is ₹226.52 Cr. After deducting the tax, the profit for the year 2020-2021 is ₹646.81 Cr. The earnings per share are ₹37.87.
The balance sheet refers to the financial record of the company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholder’s equity. The balance sheet is very important when it comes to financial modelling and accounting. The balance sheet is prepared on a flow basis, meaning, it has financial information about the company right from the time it was incorporated. The balance sheet tells us how the company has evolved financially over the years. The assets and liabilities are both separated into two categories: current and non-current.
To have a better understanding let’s look at the balance sheet of Amaraja Batteries .
In any typical balance sheet, the company’s total assets should be equal to the company’s total liabilities. Hence,
ASSETS = LIABILITIES
The above equation is also called the balance sheet equation. Owners Capital is the difference between Assets and Liabilities and it is also known as Shareholders Equity
Shareholder’s equity = Assets – Liabilities
3.Cash Flow Statement
A cash flow statement is a financial report that provides data regarding all the cash inflows a company receives from its ongoing operations and external investment sources. It also includes all the cash outflows that pay for business activities and investments during a given period. Cash flow statements help in short-term planning, details where the money is spent, track of excess cash, long term planning, optimum level of cash balance, and analyzing the working capital. Let’s look at the cash flow statement of Amaraja Batteries .
Cash flows are divided into 3 categories viz. Cash flows from operations, cash flows from investing, and cash flows from financing.
The P&L statement discusses how much the company earned as revenues versus how much the company expanded in terms of expenses. The Balance Sheet provides information regarding the company’s assets and liabilities. The cash flow statement provides information of the financial statements about the company’s ability to generate cash and cash equivalents. All these three financial statements are one of the most crucial aspects when it comes to financial statement analysis. Many financial ratios are dependent on the values represented in these statements. The bottom line is that no one indicator can adequately assess any company’s financial position and potential growth.